Geography

Climate

The climate of this district is on the whole dry, hot in summer and cold in winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from november to march is followed by hot season which lasts till the onset of the south-west monsoon. The monsoon withdraws by 15 September and is followed by the Post-monsoon or the transition period.

Rainfall

The average rainfall over the district as a whole is 55 cm. It generally increases from south or south-west to east or north-east. Over 70 per cent of the annual rainfall is received during the monsoon months of July to September. July and August are the rainiest months, together accounting for over 50 per cent of the annual rainfall. Per-monsoon rainfall in June constitutes just about 10 per cent of the annual normal. Some precipitation, constituting about 10 per cent of the annual rainfall, is also received during the winter months of December to Februrary in association with western disturbances which pass across the district or its neighborhood from west to east, affecting the weather over the district in this season. The variation in annual rainfall from year to year is large. In 48 years during 1901 to 1948, Jind which is the only station in the district with a long period of rainfall record, had 220 per cent of the annual normal rain in 1933 and only 29 per cent in 1939. Considering the rainfall in individual years during 48 years, it was less than 80 per cent of the annual normal in 15 years, including one spell of consecutive 5 years and one of consecutive two years. The average number of rainy days for the district is only 25 out of which 18 days are confined to the months of June to September and 4 days to the winter months of December to March. This shows that rainfall occurs mainly as showers.

The heaviest rainfall recorded in the district in 24 hours was 225.5 mm at Jind on 11th July 1953.

Temperature

There is no meteorological observatory in the district, On the basis of records of the observatories in the neighboring districts where similar climatic conditions prevail, it is stated that from the beginning of March, temperature increases rapidly till June which is generally the warmest month. The mean daily maximum temperature during June is around 41C and the mean daily minimum around 27C. The heat in summer in intense. On individual days, the day temperature may occasionally exceed 47 or 48 C. Scorching dust laden winds which blow during the hot season render the weather very tiring. Afternoon thunder showers which occur on some days bring some relief although only temporarily. With the onset of the monsoon by the end of June or beginning of July there is a drop in the day temperature but the nights are nearly as warm as in June. Due to the increase humidity in the air, the weather is oppressive between the rains. After the withdrawal of the monsoon by about the middle of September there is a decrease in temperature, the fall in the night temperature being more rapid. After October both day and night temperature decreases rapidly. January is usually the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 21 C , and the mean daily minimum at about 6 C in the cold season. Particularly in January and February, cold winds in the wake of passing western disturbances affect the district and the minimum temperature occasionally drops down to below the freezing point of water.

Humidity

During the south-west monsoon-season July to September, the relative humidity is high, being over 75-80 per cent in the morning and 55 to 65 per cent in the afternoon. High humidity of more than 70 per cent also prevails during the winter months of December to February. It is comparatively drier during the rest of the year. April and May constitute the driest part of the year when in the afternoon the relative humidity is 20 per cent or even less.

Cloudiness

The sky is moderately clouded mainly in July and August. Cloudiness decreases rapidly by october. In the period of November to May, the sky is mostly clear or lightly clouded, except during passage of western disturbances in the cold season when the sky becomes cloudy for a brief spell of a day or two. From June onwards cloudiness increases.

Winds

Winds are generally light, with some stregthing in force during late summer and early monsoon season. In the south-west monsoon season, winds from the south-west and west are more common, with the easterlies and south-easterlies blowing on some days. In the post-monsoon and winter season, south-easterlies and westerlies are common in the mornings while northerlies and north-westerlies are predominant in the afternoons. During summer, winds are from west or south-west in the morning. In the afternoons, winds blow from directions between west and north.

Special Weather Phenomena

Thunderstorms, in association with pre-monsoon and monsoon rains occur mostly during June to September. During the winter also, a few thunderstorms occur in association with the western disturbances. A few thunderstorms may be accompanied by hail. Occasional duststorms occur during the hot season. Fog is rare and occurs only in winter.